Discover the Science


Based on over 20 years of University Insect Control Research and Testing

We worked with Professor Emeritus, Dr. Jerry Butler, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1996-2005, in testing a multitude of repellents and attractants to determine their efficacy in repelling and attracting multiple species of Mosquitoes, Flies, Ticks, Ants, Cockroaches, and Lice.

The original work on Geraniol was performed by Prof. Jerry Butler, University of Florida, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology. Dr. Butler developed and patented the Olfactometer (photo) to test the relative effectiveness of repellents and attractants.

Each Olfactometer station mimics a human as the membrane also emits Carbon dioxide and infrared heat. His Olfactometer testing resulted in the issuance of 72 patents on repellents and attractants. Each test was repeated a minimum of 4 times for statistical significance and ran for 8-hour time periods. 

Formulation work and Field Testing of our Essential Oil Based repellents, directed at controlling Malaria and other mosquito borne vector diseases, has been performed  with Researchers at The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Haifa University, Haifa, and Bamako University, Mali from 2005-Present. Research teams were headed by Dr. Gunter Muller, a world renowned Medical Entomologist with over 150 Publications on insect control.


2-In-1 SPF 30 Sunscreen & Bug Repellent

Stability Testing: FDA Protocol

Parameters: Appearance, Color, Odor, Specific Gravity, Viscosity, Packaging Inspection for each cycle

Microbiological: Aerobic Plate Count and Yeast/Mold count tested for each cycle 

Microbiological Challenge Test for T(o): Sunscreen is inoculated with high concentration of E.Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candidas albicans, and Aspergilus niger. Plate counts are analyzed at Day (0) Day 7, Day 14, Day 21, and Day 28 confirming reduction in microbiological load.

Test Cycles:

3 Freeze/Thaw Cycles

2 Weeks@50C

3 Weeks@50C

15 Day/1 Month/2Month/3Month @5C

15 Day/1 Month/2Month/3Month@25C

15 Day/1 Month/2Month/3Month@40C

Zinc Oxide Active Ingredient Concentration:

lab tested to confirm percentage of active ingredient at end of 3 Months testing

SPF Testing – FDA Protocol:

10 subject test panel to determine SPF value utilizing Solar Simulator Lamp with UVB and UVA range 290-400 nanometers

40 min/80 min Water Resistance – FDA Protocol:

SPF value is determined after water submersion 

Broad Spectrum Testing – FDA Protocol:

In Vitro study with the critical wavelength determined of the absorbance curve obtained by measuring the UV transmittance of the test formula.

24 hour patch test:

The patch is applied and remains in place for 24 hours, at which point the subject removes it and inspects the patch site. If any reaction is observed, the subject returns to the facility and the reaction is graded. If no reaction is observed, the subjects returns to the facility the following day, at which time the patch site is again observed and graded, and the next patch (in the RIPT series) is applied. 

RIPT (Repeat Insult Patch Test) for “Hypoallergenic” claim support:

6-week RIPT to determine irritation and sensitization potential.